Furnace oil, also known as fuel oil, is a heavy residual fuel that is produced as a byproduct of crude oil refining. It is commonly used as a fuel in industrial boilers, furnaces, and other equipment that require high-temperature heating.
The properties of furnace oil can vary depending on the specific refining process used and the type of crude oil used as the feedstock. However, it typically has a high density and viscosity, and a low flash point, which means it is highly flammable.
Furnace oil is categorized into different grades based on its viscosity and other properties, with the lower viscosity grades being used in smaller industrial boilers and the higher viscosity grades being used in larger industrial furnaces and boilers. The most commonly used grades of furnace oil include Furnace Oil 180 CST, Furnace Oil 380 CST, Furnace Oil 500 CST, and Furnace Oil 700 CST.
One of the key advantages of furnace oil is its relatively low cost compared to other fuels such as natural gas or diesel. It is also widely available and can be easily transported and stored. However, the use of furnace oil is also associated with certain environmental and health risks, including air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and potential exposure to harmful pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
In many regions, regulations have been put in place to limit the use of furnace oil and encourage the adoption of cleaner fuels and technologies. Nonetheless, furnace oil remains an important fuel source for many industrial processes and is expected to continue to play a role in the global energy mix for the foreseeable future.
There are different types of furnace oil that are categorized based on their viscosity and other properties. The most commonly used types of furnace oil include:
- Furnace Oil 180 CST: This is a low-viscosity fuel oil that is commonly used in industrial boilers and furnaces. It has a viscosity of 180 centistokes (CST) at 50°C.
- Furnace Oil 380 CST: This is a higher-viscosity fuel oil that is used in large boilers and furnaces. It has a viscosity of 380 centistokes (CST) at 50°C.
- Furnace Oil 500 CST: This is a very high-viscosity fuel oil that is used in marine vessels and large power plants. It has a viscosity of 500 centistokes (CST) at 50°C.
- Furnace Oil 700 CST: This is the highest-viscosity fuel oil and is typically used in large marine vessels and power plants. It has a viscosity of 700 centistokes (CST) at 50°C.